2019 Tutu Fellow Ronak Gopaldas has written a paper on the double-edged sword that COVID-19 presents to Africa. It is published in Enact, an organisation enhancing Africa's response to transnational organised crime. In the paper, he notes that the pandemic has required a big government response. This has significant implications for Africa, which has a record and history of weak governance. The title is: The paradox of the African state in a post-COVID world – problem or solution?